Campus sexual assault prevention programs
A culture where people feel responsible for others makes it more likely they will step forward when they observe something nonconsensual happening, the sociologists said.
In addition, sometimes it's clear that a certain man is perpetrating assaults.
Thus, some prevention efforts are aimed at changing what happens at such parties.
For example, a program called the Girl Code Movement calls on partygoers to be aware of what's happening around them, which can help stop sexual assaults from happening.
They tend to occur on Friday or Saturday nights, between midnight and 6 a.m.
Often, campus rapes occur in conjunction with fraternity parties, as the Stanford rape case did.
These parties have several features that put people at risk for rape, including loud music (making it too loud to talk), low lighting (making it difficult to see and keep track of female friends) and easy access to alcohol (drinking can leave people unable to make sound decisions, or even unconscious), according to a 1996 study published in the journal Gender and Society.
Rather than aiming to make themselves desirable to men, they should focus on their own feelings of what sexuality means, she said.
Moses recommended reading "Girls & Sex: Navigating the Complicated New Landscape" (Harper, 2016), by Peggy Ornstein, or looking online to find guides and blogs that advise how to talk with boys and girls about sex, sexuality and consent.
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It may seem impossible to change a culture that makes assault seem permissible, but it's certainly feasible to change factors that make such a culture, Peretz said.